港商內地違法情況嚴重 工人維權屢遭打壓
Hong Kong Enterprise in Mainland China seriously violate the law
Workers’ rights have been repeatedly suppressed

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職工盟於2014年5月7日舉行「內地港資企業的集體勞資糾紛監察報告」發佈會,並且根據監察報告的結果,頒發年度無良港商大獎予和黃集團的李嘉誠和自由黨的田北俊。詳情如下:

 

企業社會責任一紙空文 港商內地違法情況嚴重

工人維權屢遭打壓 媒體受控喪失監察作用

 

調查背景及方法: 很多港資企業在內地設廠或營商,是多個世界知名品牌的生產商如Adidas, 蘋果及廸士尼等,但它們在內地的勞工待遇一直缺乏關注及監察。為此,職工盟建立了「港資企業監察資料庫」(見附錄1),透過媒體及社交網絡,蒐集由2013年3月至2014年4月期間港資企業工人在國內發生的大型勞資糾紛消息。職工盟一共收集了63條微博及博客,及來自6個勞工組織網站及20份不同報章合共146份有關罷工及內地勞工權益的新聞或評論,及6個與勞工權益狀況有關的調查報告。

 

 

調查結果:
1. 超過一半港資廠的罷工事件起因於搬廠不賠或未賠足遣散費及欠供社保: 由2013年3月至2014年4月期間,職工盟共收集了15宗港資廠工人於內地集體維權的個案 (工潮),全部個案均與罷工有關。其中因搬廠不賠或未賠足遣散費及欠供社保引發的罷工個案,共有8宗,佔超過五成。職工盟預料未來因被揭發欠供社保而爆發的工潮會越來越多。

2. 受影響工人估計約10萬人: 15宗罷工事件所牽涉的勞資糾紛,受影響的工人估計涉及約10萬人,這是已知的事件。由於內地媒體被禁止報導集體維護或罷工新聞,未知的工潮,不知還有多少。

3. 近9成工潮起因於違反勞動合同法: 內地工人的廠內組織及維權意識增強,今年及去年的罷工事件,比2012年多,但主要仍停留在法律保障範圍內的勞工權益,法律保障範圍以外的集體維權事件只有13%。

 

調查結果的分析:
1. 大型上市公司如和黃、建溢、開達等只利用企業社會責任為形象工程: 縱觀上述多個爆發工潮的港資企業,當中不乏大型上市公司,例如李嘉誠公司旗下的九州港碼頭工人20年從未加薪。這些企業被揭發嚴重違反勞動合同法,或勞動條件惡劣。企業社會責任只是企業用來建立「良好形象」的幌子。相信中小型港資廠工人的勞動條件會更為惡劣。

2. 內地媒體被禁報導罷工新聞,工人集體維權靠社交媒體散播消息:共產黨中宣部早於2010年5月28日已禁止內地傳媒報道或評論罷工事件。由於國內作為第四權的新聞媒體失去監察作用,工人開始學習使用社交媒體突破新聞封鎖。現時社交媒體如微博便成為工人發布罷工消息的主要平台,QQ群則是工人討論及互通消息的重要渠道。

3. 8成罷工遭公安圍堵、打人或鎮壓,甚至拘禁: 從公安機關大規模主動介入罷工事件的趨勢,可看到內地政府將罷工堵路界定為擾亂社會秩序的行為。然而,大部份罷工皆起因於企業不守勞動法規。我們有理由懷疑,地方政府官員為了企業投資所帶來的稅收,以及可能收受了企業的利益,與資方合謀,縱容企業剝削勞工,並包庇其違法行為。

4. 港府偏坦商界,助其剝削內地工人: 港府自2008年《勞動合同法》實施至今,一直協助港商就內地的勞工法例向不同政府部門反映意見。然而,港府一直只諮詢香港商會,但卻從未向立法會、工會及其他勞工團體收集相關的意見,有偏坦商界之嫌。

5. 港商多次利用特權阻撓有利工人權益的法例出台: 香港幾乎完全由市場主導的勞資關係模式令港企對工人權利十分抗拒。港商多次利用政商關係阻止有利勞動權益的法例出台。例如今年三月,田北俊出席政協第十二屆全國委員會第二次會議時,便提出「暫緩執行甚至擱置」《廣東省企業集體協商和集體合同條例(修訂草案稿)》等法規的提案。

 

職工盟呼籲:

1. 香港社會多關注內地工人的集體抗爭事件,以一人一信支持內地工人維權,及參與聲援行動;

2. 在有選擇的情況下,不要購買剝削勞工權利的品牌的商品;

3. 對於有意購買股票的市民,購買前考慮上市公司的員工僱傭條件、待遇及有否侵犯勞工權利的事件。有關內地勞工的消息及品牌的侵權行為,請瀏覽職工盟及其他關注內地工人權益的勞工團體網頁。例如:

i) 職工盟: http://www.hkctu.org.hk/web/en/index.jsp

ii) 大學師生監察無良企業行動: http://sacom.hk/hk/

iii) 全球化監察: http://www.globalmon.org.hk/zh-hant

 

職工盟建議:

1. 港府:
i) 加強對上市公司的監察,仿傚外國加入監察上市公司勞動條件的條款;

a. 聯交所應要求所有尋求上市的企業作出違反內地勞工法例的核查,其結果將作為批准上市的其中一個條件;

b. 為推動上述政策,上市規則應立即作出相應修改;

c. 就該公司而言,聯交所應立即向該公司了解,其是否已制定各項保障內地勞工的政策,及其對各項有關違反勞工法例等指控的具體回應,在未有滿意回覆前,應停止其上市程序;

 

ii) 應持中立角色,在收集與內地勞工相關法例的意見時,充分諮詢各持份者如立法會、工會及其他勞工團體。

 

 

2. 內地政府:

i) 立即釋放被無理拘留、檢控及囚禁的維權工人及工運人士;

 

ii) 尊重工人的組織及結社自由。聯合國將於5月8日審議中國落實《經濟、社會及文化權利的國際公約》情況,請留意職工盟與其他勞工團體聯合提交的報告有關中國勞工權利情況的部分。

 

3. 職工職要求跨國公司:
i) 檢討現時審核供應商有否違反勞工權利的程序,確保廠商遵守內地的勞工法例及尊重工人權利。

 

內地港資企業的集體勞資糾紛監察報告(一) 2013-2014

 

A press conference was hosted by the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions (HKCTU) on May 7, 2014 regarding “Monitoring Report on Collective Labour Disputes of Hong Kong Enterprises in China”, below is a summary of the report. Based on the findings of the monitoring report, Li Ka Shing who is the owner of Hutchison Whampoa Limited and Tin Buk Chun who is the chairperson of Liberal Party are given award of “Annual Hong Kong Enterprisers of Misbehaviour” for their big influences on exploiting workers in mainland China and blocking the legislation for labour rights protection.

 

Corporate Social Responsiblity is a hollow promise
Hong Kong Enterprise in Mainland China seriously violate the law
Workers’ rights have been repeatedly suppressed
Media lost its monitoring role


Survey Background and Method: Among the manufacturers of many world-renowned brand such as Adidas, Apple and Disney, etc., are Hong Kong owned factories and companies in China. But there have been lacking concerns and monitoring with regards to their labour treatment in the Mainland. Thus, the HKCTU established a "Monitoring Database of Hong Kong Enterprises" (see Appendix 1) to gather information of major labor disputes occurred in Mainland China from March 2013 to April 2014 through the media and social media. During which, the HKCTU gathered a total of 146 pieces of news and commentaries concerning strikes and labour rights issues from 63 micro-blog (weibo) and blog messages, 6 distinctive labour organization websites and 20 newspapers. Meanwhile, information is also acquired from 6 labour right conditions investigation reports.

 

 

Findings:
1. More than half of the strikes took place in Hong Kong-owned factories were due to inadequate compensation or severance payments during plant relocation or back pay of Social Security:
From March 2013 to April 2014, the HKCTU collected a total of 15 cases of collective labour disputes in Hong Kong-owned factories, while all of these cases were strike-related. Among these cases, more than half of them (eight cases) were related to inadequate compensation or severance payments during plant relocation or back pay of Social Security. The HKCTU foresees more labour disputes will be expected as a result of the back pay of Social Security.


2. An estimated 100,000 workers were affected: from the above 15 cases, the estimation of the number of workers affected is around 100,000. Since the mainland media is banned from reporting on any collective labour dispute nor strike, the actual number of strikes occurred remains unclear.


3. Nearly 90% of labour disputes were due to violation of the Labour Contract Act: when compared to 2012, there is a growth in the number of strikes in the past two years. Although workers’ rights awareness in China is on the rise, most of the labour disputes remained within the protective scope of the legal framework. Only 13% of the events fought for rights that were outside the legal protect scope.

 

Analysis of the findings:
1. Major listed enterprises such as Hutchison, Kin Yat, Kader and other corporate using corporate social responsibility as pretense:
A number of strikes took place in major listed companies, such as Li Ka-shing Jiuzhou Port Container Terminal when the salary of the workers were frozen for more than 20 years. These companies are exposed to serious violations of the Labor Contract Law, or poor working conditions. These companies make use of corporate social responsibility as a pretense to establish positive image. Working conditions in many Hong Kong-owned SMEs are believed to be much harsher.


2. Mainland media are banned from reporting news on strikes, social media is the only means to proliferate labour dispute messages: the Communist Party Propaganda Department has banned the mainland media to report or comment on strikes. As the domestic new media has lost its monitoring role, workers began to make use of the social media to break through the news blockade. Currently, social media and Weibo has become the main platform of news release while QQ group has become an important channel for workers to discuss and exchange information.


3. 80% of the strikes are being contained, repressed or detained by the Police: from the trend of large scale interference from the police, it is obvious that the mainland government has defined strike and road blockade as an interruption of social order. However, the causes of most strikes are due to the violation of labour law by the employers. We have reasons to suspect that due to the benefits brought by tax income and other interests, local officials collude with employers to connive corporates’ exploitation of workers and tend to cover up their illegal activities.


4. The HKSAR government is lenient on corporates’ exploitation of Mainland workers: Since the introduction of the Labour Contract Act in 2008, the government has been supporting businesses to express their concerns regarding the labour law to various government departments in the Mainland. The HKSAR government only consulted the Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce but never gather opinions from the Legco, trade unions, and labour organization.


5. Hong Kong businesses repeatedly exploited their privileges to obstruct the introduction of workers’ rights legislation: Hong Kong labour relation model is almost entirely dominated by market force, and thus, businesses are very resistant to workers’ rights. Hong Kong businesses constantly use their government-business relations to obstruct the introduction of legislation that favours the improvement of workers’ rights. For instance, when attending the 12th CPPCC Committee Meeting on March 2014, James Tien proposed to postpone or even shelve the "Guangdong Enterprises collective consultation and collective contract Ordinance (Amendment Bill draft)" and other regulations.


The HKCTU calls for:
1. Hong Kong society to pay more attention to workers' collective actions in the mainland, and petition to support mainland workers’ rights, and participate in acts of solidarity;
2. If possible, do not buy goods from brands that violate labour rights;
3. For those who intend to buy shares of public listed companies, consider whether their staff employment conditions and treatments violates labor rights before purchasing. Information concerning brand transgression of labour rights can be found in the websites of the HKCTU and other labor organizations. For example:


i) HKCTU: http://www.hkctu.org.hk/web/en/index.jsp
ii) Students and Scholars Against Corporate Misbehavior: http://sacom.hk/hk/
iii) Globalization Monitoring: http://www.globalmon.org.hk/zh-hant

 

 

HKCTU recommendations:
1. The HKSAR Government:

i) Strengthen the monitoring of listed companies, and follow foreign experience to incorporate clauses to monitor listed companies’ labor conditions;
a. The Stock Exchange should require all listed companies to seek verification in violation of labor laws in Mainland China, the result will be used as one of the conditions of listed approval;
b. To promote these policies, the Listing Rules shall immediately be modified accordingly;
c. In relation to the company, the Stock Exchange should immediately learn from the company whether various policies are implemented to protect mainland workers, and their responses to the specific allegations of violations of labor laws. Listing process should be suspended until satisfactory reply is presented;


ii) Should take a neutral role in the collection of views regarding the mainland labour-related legislation, adequate consultation with various stakeholders such as the Legislative Council, trade unions and other labor organizations.

 

2. The Mainland Government:
i) Immediate release of all rights defending workers and labour activists who are unjustly detained, prosecuted, and imprisoned;


ii) Respect worker’s freedom of association and organization. The United Nation will deliberate the PRC implementation of "International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights" on May 8, please take note of the joint report submitted by the HKCTU and other labor organizations on the labor rights situation in China.


3. Multinational Corporations:
i) To review the current procedure in assessing whether suppliers have violated labour rights and to ensure manufacturers comply with the mainland labour law and respect workers' rights.